The Africa regional integration index is designed to measure the extent to which each country in Africa is meeting its commitments under the various pan-African integration frameworks, such as Agenda 2063 and the Abuja Treaty.
The index, which is a joint project of the African Development Bank, the African Union Commission and the Economic Commission for Africa, covers the following dimensions: free movement of persons, trade integration, productive integration, regional interconnections and infrastructure, and macroeconomic policy convergence.
Overall, Ghana ranks moderately to highly within the ECOWAS index, attaining sixth place out of fifteen countries in the bloc. The country’s performance in CEN-SAD is also moderate to high, with the country ranking eleventh out of twenty seven member countries in the overall index.
- Sixth in ECOWAS (score: 0.55).
- Eleventh in CEN-SAD (score: 0.42).
How Ghana Ranks Within CEN-SAD
Compare Ghana's Dimension Scores
How Ghana Ranks Within ECOWAS
Compare Ghana's Dimension Scores
Analysis of Ghana's Performance Across Dimensions
Free movement of persons: Ghana performs strongly in this dimension. Ghana allows nationals from all other ECOWAS countries to enter visa-free. Ghana has also ratified the relevant ECOWAS instruments concerning free movement of persons, rights of establishment and free movement of workers. Ghana has also ratified the relevant CEN-SAD instruments concerning free movement of persons, rights of establishment and free movement of workers. More than half (58 percent) of other CEN-SAD member states may enter Ghana visa-free, and the remaining 15 per cent may enter with a visa on arrival. Though Ghana has recently liberalized its visa regime for other African countries, this information was too recent to be taken into account in the Index.
Trade integration: Ghana performs moderately in this dimension. Ghana has an average applied tariff of around 4.8 percent on imports from ECOWAS (based on data for 2014). This is the eighth-highest in the bloc. The country’s average applied tariff on imports from CEN-SAD is 16.5 percent. Trade (as a share of GDP) with the rest of the regional economic community is mixed. Ghana’s share of total trade in the bloc is 9.2 percent (based on data for 2015); this is the second highest in the bloc after Nigeria (76 percent). Over the period 2010 to 2013, imports from the rest of ECOWAS accounted for only 5.4 percent of Ghana’s GDP, which was the seventh lowest equivalent statistic for any other ECOWAS member country while imports from the rest of CEN-SAD accounted for 6 percent-had ninth highest level among 24 countries for which data was available. Ghana’s exports to ECOWAS as a share of GDP averaged 2.4 percent over the same period-the sixth highest level among ECOWAS member countries. Over the same period exports to CEN-SAD averaged around 3 percent of GDP, which was the eighth highest level among the 24 CEN-SAD members.
Productive integration: Ghana performs above average in this dimension. Ghana’s integration into regional value chains appears to be mixed. Its trade is moderately complementary with that of its partners. It has a merchandise complementarity index of 0.15 (based on data 2013) which indicates that there is moderate Ghana’s export and ECOWAS import structure. The share of Ghana of intermediates in its imports from the regional economic communities was 0.02 per cent. The share of intermediates in total exports within the region averaged 0.46 per cent-the fourth highest level among the ECOWAS member countries while 0.08 per cent of the country’s imports from CEN-SAD were intermediates (meaning that it ranked thirteenth out of 14 countries for which data was available).
Infrastructure: Ghana performs above average in this dimension. The country ranked third among ECOWAS members in its average performance in the AfDB infrastructure development index between 2010 and 2012. Around 80 per cent of international flights to and from Ghana are intra-ECOWAS, which is the third-highest such ratio among ECOWAS members (behind Sierra Leone and Guinea Bissau), while 81 per cent of its international flights were intra-CEN-SAD (the fifth-highest such ratio among CEN-SAD members). Intra-African mobile phone roaming is quite expensive in Ghana, as the country had the highest cost of roaming 38 African countries for which data was available according to data collected in 2014.
Financial integration and macroeconomic policy: Ghana performs poorly in this dimension. The index includes only one indicator on financial integration which measures the inflation rate of the same regional economic community. Accordingly, Ghana’s inflation rate was 11.7 percent both in ECOWAS and CEN-SAD which was the second highest and the fourth highest level among the member countries respectively.
- Free movement of persons: first in ECOWAS (score: 0.8). Thirteenth in CEN-SAD (score: 0.64).
- Trade integration: fourth in ECOWAS (score: 0.6). Best performer in ECOWAS is Nigeria (score: 1). Twelfth in CEN-SAD (score: 0.47).
- Productive integration: third in ECOWAS (score: 0.47). Best performer in ECOWAS is the Gambia (score: 0.52). Eighth in CEN-SAD (score: 0.32).
- Infrastructure: third in ECOWAS (score: 0.6). Best performer in ECOWAS is Cabo Verde (score: 0.68). Tenth in CEN-SAD (score: 0.32).
- Financial integration and macroeconomic policy convergence: twelfth in ECOWAS (score: 0.25). Best performer in ECOWAS is Niger (score: 1). Nineteenth in CEN-SAD (score: 0.35).