The Africa regional integration index is designed to measure the extent to which each country in Africa is meeting its commitments under the various pan-African integration frameworks, such as Agenda 2063 and the Abuja Treaty.
The index, which is a joint project of the African Development Bank, the African Union Commission and the Economic Commission for Africa, covers the following dimensions: free movement of persons, trade integration, productive integration, regional interconnections and infrastructure, and macroeconomic policy convergence.
It was not possible to give Somalia an overall ranking in the index due to a lack of data(1), but rankings for individual dimensions were available.
Overall, Somalia performs relatively poorly across the board, particularly in terms of trade integration and productive integration. Where specific policy measures that could boost its performance are concerned, Somalia could consider waiving visa requirements for nationals of a greater number of African countries and looking into other measures to boost intraregional trade in goods and integration into regional value chains.
- Seventh in IGAD (score: 0.2). Twenty-fifth in CEN-SAD (score: 0.02).
- Best performer in IGAD is Uganda (score: 1).
How Somalia Ranks Within CEN-SAD
Compare Somalia's Dimension Scores
How Somalia Ranks Within IGAD
Compare Somalia's Dimension Scores
Analysis of Somalia's Performance Across Dimensions
Free movement of persons: Moderate to poor score (fifth in IGAD, twentieth in CEN-SAD). Somalia allows nationals of all other African countries to with a visa on arrival, but no other African countries are allowed to enter visa-free. Somalia has ratified the relevant CEN-SAD instruments concerning free movement of persons, rights of establishment and free movement of workers; IGAD has no such protocol.
Trade integration: Poor score (seventh in IGAD, twenty-fifth in CEN-SAD). Data was not available on Somalia’s average applied tariff as a share of intra-regional imports. Trade (as a share of GDP) with the rest of the regional economic communities of which it is a member is mixed. On average from 2010 to 2013, Somalia’s imports from IGAD accounted for 28 per cent of the country’s GDP; imports from CEN-SAD accounted for around 8 per cent. However, the country’s exports to the region were low over the same period, with exports to IGAD accounting for less than 0.1 per cent of GDP on average and exports to CEN-SAD accounting for around 1 per cent of GDP.
Productive integration: Poor score (seventh in IGAD, twenty-sixth in CEN-SAD). Somalia appears to be poorly integrated into regional value chains, since its trade does not complement that of its partners (neither in CEN-SAD or IGAD). Data on the share of intermediates in its trade with CEN-SAD and IGAD was unavailable.
Infrastructure: Moderate to poor score (fourth in IGAD twenty-second in CEN-SAD). In terms of which countries have the lowest cost of intra-African roaming, Somalia ranks twenty-third out of 38 African countries for which data was available. The country ranks lowest among all African countries in terms of AfDB’s infrastructure development index. Around 81 per cent of Somalia’s international flights are intra-IGAD, while 78 per cent are intra-CEN-SAD.
- Free movement of persons – fifth in IGAD (score – 0.2). Best performer in IGAD is Uganda (score – 0.8). Twentieth in CEN-SAD (score – 0.3).
- Trade integration – seventh in IGAD (score – 0.2). Best performer in IGAD is Uganda (score – 1). Twenty-fifth in CEN-SAD (score – 0.02).
- Productive integration – seventh in IGAD (score – 0). Best performer in IGAD is Kenya (score – 1). Twenty-sixth in CEN-SAD (score – 0).
- Infrastructure – fourth in IGAD (score – 0.6). Best performer in IGAD is Djibouti (score – 0.8). Twenty-second in CEN-SAD (score – 0.2).
- Financial integration and macroeconomic policy convergence –no ranking available due to lack of data.
(1) A continent-wide ranking, in which all African countries from all regional economic communities will be compared with one another, is currently under development for the Africa regional integration index and will be added to subsequent updates of the ECA country profiles.