The Africa regional integration index is designed to measure the extent to which each country in Africa is meeting its commitments under the various pan-African integration frameworks, such as Agenda 2063 and the Abuja Treaty.
The index, which is a joint project of the African Development Bank, the African Union Commission and the Economic Commission for Africa, covers the following dimensions: free movement of persons, trade integration, productive integration, regional interconnections and infrastructure, and macroeconomic policy convergence.
Overall, The Gambia ranks moderately to poorly within the ECOWAS index, attaining eleventh place, moderately to strongly within CEN-SAD, attaining tenth place.
- Eleventh in ECOWAS (score: 0.45).
- Tenth in CEN-SAD (score: 0.42).
How Gambia Ranks Within CEN-SAD
Compare Gambia's Dimension Scores
How Gambia Ranks Within ECOWAS
Compare Gambia's Dimension Scores
Analysis of Gambia's Performance Across Dimensions
Free movement of persons: The Gambia performs above average in this dimension. The Gambia allows nationals from all other ECOWAS countries to enter visa-free. The Gambia has also ratified the relevant ECOWAS instruments concerning free movement of persons, rights of establishment and free movement of workers. Half (50 percent) of other CEN-SAD member states may enter the Gambia visa-free, and a further 8 per cent may enter with a visa on arrival. The Gambia has also ratified the relevant CEN-SAD instruments concerning free movement of persons, rights of establishment and free movement of workers.
Trade integration: The Gambia performs poorly in this dimension. The Gambia has an average applied tariff of around 16.72 percent on imports from ECOWAS (based on data for 2014). This is the highest tariff rate in the bloc. The country’s average applied tariff on imports from CEN-SAD is 16.6 percent. Over the period 2010 to 2013, imports from the rest of ECOWAS accounted for only 5.1 percent of the Gambia’s GDP, which was the eighth lowest equivalent statistic for any other ECOWAS member country, while imports from the rest of CEN-SAD accounted for 5.9 percent-had eleventh highest level among 24 countries for which data was available. Exports to ECOWAS as a share of GDP averaged 2.43 percent over the same period-the fifth highest level among ECOWAS member countries. Over the same period exports to CEN-SAD averaged around 2.5 percent of GDP, which was the ninth highest level among the 24 CEN-SAD members for which data was available.
Productive integration: The Gambia performs strongly in this dimension. The Gambia has a merchandise complementarity index of 0.15 (based on data 2013) indicates weak correlation between its export and ECOWAS import structure. The share of Gambia of intermediates in its imports from the regional economic communities was 0.36 per cent, while 25.8 per cent of the country’s imports from CEN-SAD were intermediates (meaning that it ranked sixth). The Gambia’s share of intermediates in total exports within ECOWAS averaged 0.33 per cent (the fifth highest level among ECOWAS member states), while it ranked highest among CEN-SAD members in terms of the proportion of its exports to that bloc.
Infrastructure: The Gambia scores moderately in this dimension. The country ranked second among ECOWAS members in its average performance in the AfDB infrastructure development index between 2010 and 2012. Around 76 per cent of international flights to and from the Gambia are intra-ECOWAS, which is the eighth-highest such ratio among ECOWAS members, while 75 per cent of its international flights were intra-CEN-SAD (the seventh-highest such ratio among CEN-SAD members).
Financial integration and macroeconomic policy: The Gambia performs poorly in this dimension. The index includes only one indicator on financial integration which measures the inflation rate of the same regional economic community. Accordingly, The Gambia’s inflation rate was 5.2 percent which was the sixth and thirteenth highest level among the member countries of ECOWAS and CEN-SAD respectively.
- Free movement of persons. First in ECOWAS (score: 0.8). Seventh in CEN-SAD (score: 0.72).
- Trade integration. Fourteenth in ECOWAS (score: 0.01). Best performer in ECOWAS is Nigeria (score: 1). Nineteenth in CEN-SAD (score: 0.2).
- Productive integration: first in ECOWAS (score: 0.52). Best performer in ECOWAS is The Gambia (score: 0.52). Fifth in CEN-SAD (score: 0.48).
- Infrastructure: fourth in ECOWAS (score: 0.55). Best performer in ECOWAS is Cabo Verde (score: 0.68). Thirteenth in CEN-SAD (score: 0.28).
- Financial integration and macroeconomic policy convergence: tenth in ECOWAS (score: 0.36). Best performer in ECOWAS is NIGER (score: 1). Fifteenth in CEN-SAD (score: 0.42).